By Vungzamuan Valte, Columnist Zogam.com

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TRIBES:Scheduled tribe means (under Article 366 (25), such tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purpose of the Constitution.

Article 342:The President of India may, with respect to any state or Union territory, after consultation with the Governor thereof, by public notification, specify the tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within tribes or tribal communities which shall, for the purposes of the constitution, is deemed to be scheduled tribes in relation to that state or Union territory, as the case may be.
TRIBAL AREAS: Tribal areas means, the areas predominantly populated by the tribals and notified by the president of India as Scheduled Area under Article 244 (1) of the Constitution such as Scheduled Area part A states, order, 1950, Scheduled Area Pat B states Order, 1950 etc. and Sixth Scheduled Areas under Article 244 (2) of the Constitution.

SCHEDULED TRIBES NOTIFIED: In exercise of the powers conferred under Article 342 of the Constitution of India, the president of India issued “The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order 1950 on 06.09. 1950 for the tribal residents of the states/Union Territories of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, MANIPUR, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal (we are there).

 Areas specified in part I, II, IIA & III of the table appended to paragraph 20 of the SIXTH SCHEDULE are tribal areas within the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura & Mizoram (we are not there).

Under Article 244 (1) of the constitution of India, Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled tribes have been prescribed. The President of India issued the Scheduled Areas (Part A States) Order, 1950 and the Scheduled Areas (Part B States) Order 1950 etc. for the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh. (we are not there).

3.HILL AREAS (MANIPUR): Article 371C of the constitution provides for a special provision with respect to the state of Manipur for the constitution and functions of a Committee of the Legislative Assembly of the state consisting of members of the Assembly from the Hill Areas of the state. The expression Hill Areas means such areas as the President may, by order, declare to be Hill Areas.

4.The Manipur Legislative Assembly (HILL AREAS COMMITTEE) ORDER, 1972 was promulgated by the president of India and the Hill Areas has been specified in the schedule as below:
(1)Manipur North, Manipur East, Manipur West and Manipur South revenue districts.
(2) Chandel, Chakpikarong and Tengnoupal revenue sub-divisions of the Manipur Central revenue district (as amended).

5.Hill District Councils in Manipur
The Manipur (Hill Areas) District Council Act, 1971, an Act passed by the Parliament paved the way for establishment of six Autonomous District Councils in Manipur. In accordance with the powers vested on the Governor of Manipur, following six Autonomous Districts Councils were constituted on 14th February, 1972:-
(1)    Chandel Autonomous District Council,
(2)    Churachandpur Autonomous District Council,
(3)    Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council, Kangpokpi
(4)    Manipur North Autonomous District Council, Senapati
(5)    Tamenglong Autonomous District Council,
(6)    Ukhrul Autonomous District Council.
(As amended in 1975, 2006 and 2008)

The term Hill Areas has a historical background. During the colonial period, "The Hill Tribes" Rules, 1935 was used for the Management of the Hill Tribes. This rule was the application of The Chin Hills Regulation of 1896 in spirit but not in letters. At the time of India's independence, the term "Hill Tribe" was substituted by the term "Hill People" in the Manipur Hill People's Regulation, 1947 and the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947. Even in the composition of the Assembly, 18 seats were reserved for the hill areas. The Government of India or the State Government used the term "Hill Areas" in the legislation, Manipur Hill Areas Village Authorities Act, 1956, the Manipur Land Revenues and Land Reform Act, 1960, the Manipur Hill Areas Councils Act, 1971 etc. The term Hill Areas is a misnomer, it is more appropriate to adopt the term, "Tribal Areas" in the administration of the districts or subdivisions inhabited by the Scheduled Tribes.

(1)    Part 1 chapter 1 of the Manipur MLR& LR Act, 1960 reads as under:
Short title, extent and commencement: - (1) This Act may be called the ManipurLand Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960.
(2) It extends to the whole of the State of Manipur except the hill areas thereof:
(3) Section 2(j) MLR & LR Act, 1960 defines the term Hill Areas as such areas in the ‘Hill Tracts’ of the State of Manipur as the State Government made by notification in the Official Gazette, declared to be the hill areas. Vide notification No. 181/2/61 dated 25.01.1962Hill Villages were notified as Hill Areas (as amended from time to time).
(4) Under Section 158(Part V, Chapter XIII of the MLR & LR Act, 1960) a special provision regarding Scheduled Tribes was inserted as under:
* No transfer of land by a person who is a member of the Scheduled Tribes shall be valid unless:
(a) The transfer is to another member of the Scheduled tribes; or
(b) Where the transfer is to a person, who is not a member of any such tribe,
It is made with the previous permission in writing of the Deputy
Commissioner, provided that the Deputy Commissioner shall not give
Such permission unless he has first secured the consent thereto of the
District Council within whose jurisdiction the land lies: or
(c) The transfer is by way of mortgage to a co-operative society.

To recapitulate, the following Acts or Regulations may be kept in mind:
1947: Manipur State Hill Peoples (Administration) Regulation Act, (MSHPAR), 1947
1956: Manipur Village Authorities (Hill Areas) Act, 1956
1960: Manipur Land Reform and Land Revenue Act (MLR &LRA), 1960
1967: Manipur Hill Areas (Acquisition of Chiefs Rights) Act, 1967(not enforced)
1971: Manipur (Hill Areas) District Council Act, 1971
1972: Manipur Legislative Assembly (Hill Areas Committee) Order, 1972
2002: Manipur (Village Authorities in Hill Areas) Second Amendment Ordinance, 2010
2008: Areas) District Councils (Third Amendment) Act, 2008

Now, the following question emerges:

KHATNA: Bangziak a Hill Tracks peuh, Hill Areas peuh kichi a, Tribal Areas/Scheduled Areas kichi lou ahiam?

A dawnna ding haksapi ahi, Scheduled area under Six Schedule (Article 244 (2) of the Constitution) ahihlouhna bel Government of India Act, 1935 ah Excluded leh Partially Excluded Areas om hiven, huaite kha Independent khitphet in India Constitution ah guanlut hi uhi, tuate lak ah Manipur telkhalou chitchiat hi. Mizoram (parts of), Meghalaya,Assam hi ua, Nagaland in State amuh un paihkhia ua, Mizoram in UT amuh un paihkhia ua (Mizo District), Assam leh Meghalaya ten retain uhi.Arunachal, Sikkim leh Darjeeling ten zong neilou uhi.Tripura in 1985 in lalut leuleu uhi. ManipurHill Areas dinmun bel, Article 371C nuai ah Hill Areas Committee Order, 1972 leh Manipur Hill Areas District Council Act, 1971 vaihawmkhum tadih lai hi.
Scheduled Area kichi Atricle 244(1) nuai ah India President in Tribal te tenna mun tampitak puangkhia a, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh etc. ah Tribal ten bitna mu uhi. Hiai Scheduled Area ah ManipurHill Areas a kiguanlutna muhtheih omlou lai hi.
Tuate ziakin, Hill Track, Hill Areas, Hill Tribes chih a I lungkim mai kulphot hi.

NIHNA:Manipur Hill Areas ah Village Hausapu Ex-Officio Chairman ahih sese ngai hiam, Village Authority democratic tak a neih theih louh adiam?

Democracy gam a om ihia, democracy dan mah a grassroot/local kivaihawmna leh kivaipuakna mah hoihpen ding hi. Village Development Board hiam, Village Council ichihdante a hoih mahmah, mipite tel ahihna uah gam leh nam, khua leh tui ittak in kem ua panla uhi. Khua zong bubit deuhse a, khantouhna lam ah masawn zawtham ua muhtheih in om hi. Mizoram leh Tripura banah Nagaland in village level a kivaihawmna kichuptak a neih ziak un khangtou zaw ua muhtheih in om hi. Meghalaya, Manipur leh Karbi Anglong gamte ah huchidan omlou a, khullakpa, Gaobura, Hausapu vaihawmna ahihziakin kivaihawmnaa nawngkai a, absentee chief a tamna gam ngial ah houh gamzuak, hausa hihna zuak, leh development himhim paihatlou hia muhtheih in om hi. Khantouhna taktak I deihleh bel, Panchayat Rai system leng hoihzawtham maithei hi. Welfare state ihihna ah stake holder te panlakna mah kuitung penpen chih I theih thakthak poimoh lua hi.

THUMNA:Hausate omlou hileh I gam I mansuah ding, midang leh gamdang mi ten hong luahdim ding uh, kichi pen bangchidan thu ahia?

Constitution safeguards hoihtak I neihte enthak mah dih, Hausate ziak a I gam leh khua le tui bubit ahi de aw!Hill Areas Committee, Hill Areas District Council ichihte kivawihawmna lam, district level democracy leh State level a kivaihawmna, Hill Areas bubitna ding, leh khantouhna ding a dan kibawl khiate ahi uhi. MLR & LR Act, 1960 a safeguards ahonpiakte enthak mah dih, hiai law in Hill Areas a huapkha kei ding, Tribalte gam tribal lou in a leithei kei ding, a leitheihna ding a lampi omsun district council phalna leh DC phalna ngai eitel ve! Hiaite eivoi ahon humbittu diktak, hausate ziak ahi ichih teite lehbel thutuam hive.

LINA: Panchayat System gampumpi ah kizang tangpi hi, bang dia ei gam a kizang lou sese ahia?
District Council I neih ziak ahi, himahleh hiai in Panchayat system tuk teuhlou hial hi. Panchayat system ah Village Panchayat mipite tel om uhi huaite tungah Samiti kichi Block level ah omnawn leuleu hi. District level ah Zilla Parishad thuneihna sangtak tawitu omnawn a, huaite kitelthoh ngenta ahi hi. Development projects tengteng hiai kahiang thumte vaisaivek sipsip ahia, MLA, Ministerte kigolh theilou hial uhi. Mipite kivaihawmna diktak leh mumaltak ahizaw. Tua ei paidan bel, Village level ah democracy taktak omlou, Block level ah bangmah omlou, district level ah council om liuliau lel, hiai paidan pen buching zoulou mah ahi, Scheduled area ah Panchayat system mah paipih ua lohching zawtham hi. Sixth Schedule area ah bel elected Village councils mah paipih tangpi uhi.

NGANA: Meghalaya in District Council nei, Nagaland in neilou, Mizoram in le minorityte omnate chauh a nei, bangziak ahi di?

Nagaland in state amuhphet ua hnoksak maimai ding, Article 371A in safeguard honpia chi ua paihkhia uhi. Mizoram in poimoh salou ua UT amuh phet un paihkhia uhi, Article 371G in safeguard zou mahmah kichi uhi. Meghalaya in kembit lailai tel hi, tuchiang chiang in bel hnoksak sa mahmah ta uhi, aziak bel, power centres tamlua, traditional institutions tamlua, MP/MLA ten nasem thei kisa lou hial uhi. Gaoburate leh MDC te tungtawn a development nasep tengteng apai vek sipsip chiangin nawngkai mahmah a, nasep ut ngoihngoih te zong a tha uh zoisak ngoihngoih mai hi. Gaonbura te phalna omlou a bangmah hihtheihlouh zaw, chiin phun nulnul leltak ua, distric council bek lakkhiak sawmsawmta uhi, haksa mahmah ta.Shillong khawpi kumluitak, I kisaktheihpih mahmah sam uhi, Airport lenna liante tuktheihna neinailou eitel ve, Umroi a gamneitu local lubawk in a gam pekhe utlou a, Vincent Pala (MP) nasan khasia kisa hi, hiaite mawngmawng chichi maisam ahi.

GUKNA: Khawpi liandeuhte khangtou hen ichihleh Municipality Board leh Town Committee system I neih hoih ding hilou maw, a neihtheih diam?

1980 vel in Singngat, Thanlon, Henglep ichihte Town Committee system a kivaihawm dingin election naktak in sai uhi. Lamka ah Municipal Committee dinkhia ua nasep zong pan man uhi. Doudalnate ziakin lakkhiak kik ahi uhi.I khawpite khangtou henla, thupi semsem hen ichihleh, town hiam Municipal dan a kivaihawm ding mah ahi, rules and regulation bawlkhiak a, dan leh dun kichuptak a omna nuai a kivaihawmna penmah kuitung zaw hi. Hill Areas, Tribal Areas, Scheduled Areas  teah, Urban bodies aom thei kei ding chihna thu omlou mawngmawng hi. Hiai, urban bodies aom ziak ua Tribal status I mansuahna ding uh zong omlou lai hi. Adiktak in, Lamka khua khawng Village Authority level a Job Card hawmtu dan a kivaihawm zawh seng ding hinawnlou dan ahi hi.
Sewerage system mumaltak, waste disposal system changkangtak, street lighting, house numbering system, drainage system, slaughter house, market, Building byelaws, fees and taxation, parking system, public conveniences, recreation centres, green belt, parks and children amusement parks, Libraries, Bus depots, multilevel parking, road and communication, sanitation, water supply, leh Transport godowns etc. thupitaktak I neihtheihna dingin, funding agencies poimoh uhi, huai funding agencies te I sawk theihna omsun bel urban bodies neih ding ahi hi. Sanitation mission, Urban development fund, World Bank, IMF leh international donor agencies I sawk theihna dingin municipality poimoh mahmahhi. Sum seng ut ngoihngoih aom lai ua, e`n I lutsak ut himhim keileh chu, ei a zaang kihi lel mai. Hill Areas ahihna, District council ineihnate beisak ding hituanlou, local body dan khat lel ahi hi.

SAGIHNA:NLUP chihthu genging aomjek a bangthu bangla ahia, Manipur ah zattheih ding hia, singtang gam suhsakna ding lunggelna ahi achipawl aom ua?

I khankhiakna ding leh, a tuantual zawdeuhte dopkangna dingin hiai New Land Use Policy hoih mahmah kha ding hi. Vok khawi, Nga Khawi, Ak khaw, Ui khawi, Kel/beram khawi, Lung khawi leh khawi theih tampite ban ah cash crop sumsuahtheih haichi chiin ding, farm bawl theihna leh mimal mal in asiamdan dungjui jel ua nekzonna bawlsak ding chih ahi hi. Pankhawm hatna ahia, hausaten gam ahawm khiak uh kul ding hi, banghanghiam chihleh, gan khawina ding in gam poimoh a, singnou bangnou suanna dingin gam poimoh masa hi. Kum 30 tanbek hausaten hiai scheme benefeciaries te kiang ah gam a satkhaik sak uh poimoh hi. Huchilou in zaw, singnou suanpichingtu a tangkei khaget jel ding,a hehpihhuai lawkha getjel khading. Sumchinvum hausapu`n forest te a gam ah singnou suansaksak inchin, forest ten kempiching hithet uh, far sing a at-huntak a kitanhiau, at hmiahhmiah mai, forest ten case bawlkhum na unchin zou tuanlou uh.

Singngat ah 1970`s in U Lianpu ten gam lianpi nei ua sing khawi piching khepkhup hial uhi, kuate hiam in ka gam, ka sing chia suhsak mawk uh, pawna mahmah na unchin hihtheih tawmlua, omlou himai. Commoners, minarante a dingin NLUP poimoh ngoihngoih ahi, ahia gam neitute toh pankhawm mah ngaidan ahi hi. NLUP ziaka Hill Areas, District council, Tribal status, Hill Villages, MLR etc. tengteng hong bei duak ding hilou inchin, kipsak semsem zawding hi. Singtang khua ah milip khosakna hong paalluun leh, khaw kip, khaw paksingsen hong hizaw ding hi, a huchihlouh chiangin, kipem khiakhia ahizaw daih hi. Huasate hiai NLUP a deihlouhna ziak uh, landlord class te angmasialna lel hikha ding hi, gam piak khiak ding deihlouna ziak hikhamohlou hial ding hi. Hilehle, mipi a tengtu ding omloupi a khua hausa hih teitei theih leng hithahah louding hia maw?? Vuaktang a  vangam kaiding gente toh tehkhin zual le, mahmah aw.

GIATNA: I gam ah compensation government in minautangte kiang ah piaktheihna anei hia, hausate kia hia compensation muthei ding?

Khuga Dam bawl ding lai in  hiaithu buaipih mahmah ua, Manipur government in Saikot hausa gam teng survey bawlsak uhi. Huchi in louneitute, gamneitute, inn neitute chiamtehna omthei pan hi, huchilou hileh minautang ten government kiang ah compensation ngetna ding laidal/ ownership paper submit ding neilou uhi. Tuaziak in survey bawl ahihtak chiangin, inn leh lou neitute chiamtehna aom theih dungjui in compensation pia ua, dam bawl thei pan uhi. Tipaimukh dam deihlouhna leng hiaithu dandeuh mah ahi, etsakna dingin, Senvon hausapu Francis Lawmkimna Singson pen Aizawlte hi a, dam tui in gam a tupsiatna ding teng compensation/zangnadopna minautangte khut ah lutlou ding, hausapu khut ah lut ding chih himawk leuleu hi.  Na innmun, na gam, na lou, na farm registered ahih keileh zangnadopna muh pen baihlam louhial khading hi. Hausa thuneihna gam ahihziakin, na theihlouh kar in compensation sum luakvek thei takpi hi. Lamka zaang ah bel registration bawl siausiau hive hang, dan in phalta himai lou ding hia!

THUKHITNA: Minautangte (Commoners) haksatna pen bel, khua leh tui hihna kiptak I neihlouh mahmah ahi, sihngap hialin na khua na tui humbit lechin zong, a neitu khat om leuluau mawk hi. Community ownership of land ichih omlou himawk laizang, gam zuak zuak leh Hausa hihna mahmah zuakzuak theite hizawmah hangin, minautangte a dia leitang sihpih ngap nading thu omlou mah bang suak hi. Tuamah bangin, village administration, local self-government ichih omlou lai zawmah hi, Chairman post bangchu, kum 3 danin kikheng kual zelzel hileh, development fund teng azatnate dik dawmdeuh ding hi. Tutak a bel,hausa khuttung ngen a sum pai tadih, absentee hausa ten Imphal leh DC office Tuibuang ah saifel gaivek jel uhi, a khua tung zou ding sum omlou suakta.  Hausa tengteng, a dik kei uh chihna hipah lou in, I paidan diklou pen bawlhoih theihdan aom hiam, ichihna ahi zaw. Stakeholders, mivantangte nelhsiah ahihchiang un, inntekpan ding kuamah omlou, omthei ding vual hilou, huchia singtang khua kipemsansan ihi-zaw hi. 

Hausate beisakna pen buaihuaitakpi khat ahia, political influence nei mahmah ngenta ahiziak un, beisak mawk hithei pahlian lou ding hi, himahleh Village Council mumaltak a function sak bel,aguhlangrot a genin, a bulpi ahi hi. Status quo paihkhe utlou, kikhenna deih bilbel lou ihih lebel, khantouh ngaihna omloupi suak a, MDC election, MLA election neisuk in neitou lengzong, a bul I karhkhiak keileh a zungkai kip semsem ahihna ah, kituisabuak den ding ihi, Mizote, Chin State a unaute nasan inzalenna kipahhuai tak a zaarzounate uh chiamkhalou a, NAM NI thupitaktak a, a belhawmpi lawm dupdup nilouh hihkhak ding lauhuai mahmah hi. Khasite khanmohbawk pen, Rangbahsnong, Syiem, Gaonbura e, bang e, traditional institutions teng a kepbit maimah mawk ziak un, khantouh malak ah, a lungsim uh kawchik deuhdeuh zawmah hi, gam feet khat lampi keekletna ding a pekhengam lou hon, development sang a numei vaihawmna nuai a papi zangkhai mouthak khualkhual, leather jacket toh om thremthram te maban limchi hetlou hi. Change ahi I poimoh, change for the better, kikhekna omlou in tui luang lou a uihgawp mah bangin kiuih gawpzaak khathei hi.

Mizoramte, Nagalandte state ahi ua, special safeguard danin Hausa innpi kivaikhawmna poimoh nawnlou ahi uh, eite bel huaidan dinmun hinailou ihi, I gam leitang kembittu hausa innpi ahi, Sixth Schedule I muhma zaw lakkhiak ahoih kei, chih misiam tallang kichi khenkhatte kampau leh laigelh ahi. Kuate hiam spokesman maimai akei ua, MLR & LR Act, 1960, section 158 in singtanggam/hill areas ah tribalte gam zuakkhiak theih dingdan exception clause leh MLR & LR Act, 1960 in Hill Areas a huapkha kei chingoih ngoih nazenpi a, Saikot gam leh gam khenkhat surveyed ahihna maimai ziaka Hill Areas ahihna bei/mang singsa, huaidan hiteuhlou ahi.

Compensation I muthei ua, innmun patta I neithei ua, Hausa kol apat ownership of land tungtang ah I suakta uhi. Singtanggamte zong surveyed hihenla, I innmun I loumunte government theihpihna toh chiamtehna om hilehzaw, kisuhsak mawmawk hiam, nazuak theikei ding etc. kichih dan omlou ding hi. Tuateng banah, Hill Areas Committee leh Disctrict Council Laws (Article 371C) aom sungteng kibit veve, with or without village chiefs, Hill Areas ahi a protect, Hausate boundary hizawlou in.

Mitmul sauzen, kaangzen in tuikang ngak in ngak mahle, Sixth Schedule sualtute nasan in leinuai hon den`santa ua, chikchiang a muding ihi ua, chihleng theihlouhpi kingaksak nilouh zaw, Jesu hongpai ding a naitakdan gengen toh kibang geih sa ing. Hiai ahi melma muhlouh lau a mitdel lah hilou napi a I kipikhelh khak nilouhna uh. Mahni thuneihna gam leh nam a dia nuse ngamlou ngenta kihilim hi, Kuki gam leh eite gam ah. Nagate tenna ah zaw clan leh community ownership of land omsam a, huchitel in kulmut lawtel kenkun loudeuh uhi.Huaiziaktak ah Kukite toh unau laiguizom ikichih chihna ziaktak ua, lungsimputdan kibang geih.

Hill Areas ah Project liantham leh exploration khawng I buaipih mahmah ua, HAC leh District Councilte buaipih ding ahizaw hi, mipite buaina ding om zenzen lou ahi, dan bangtak a phalna apiak chiang un, legal ahia va soisel teitei kullou hi, safeguards hoihtaktak koih mahmah ding un I palaite muang mai le, eite tanga palainasem ding a I sawl hive un maw! Hundung Cement palnt I genkaisek ua, Hiai zaw NEC leh Manipur government ten land acquisition mumaltak omloupi a abwl mawk uh ahia buai mah ahi, legally acquired hilehbel, buaina ding omhetloupi khat ahi hi. Constitutional safeguards leh Legal protection ineihte huntawk mahmah lel hi, hiai protective mechanism omsate nangawn dukdaktak a zangtheilou district council leh HAC nei ihihlebel, don not blame the devil, the devil is amongst us. Midang, gamdang ten honchiimmang ding, tua le vaite tamgawpta chichi napi a vaite zatding business permit/license piapia theite ihi laizang uhi.Eite mohna mah hi, Meiteite hiam Delhi lamte hiam hizawlou ahi hi.

Sixth Schedule I ngen ua, Ministry of Home affairs a mitallang mahmah khat in “Do you really want sixth schedule, are you ready to sacrifice your traditional institutions.??Democratic institutions and traditional institutions cannot co-exist” achih in gen tampitak nei hi, NGAIH KASA MAHMAH VE. GIVE AND TAKE DINMUN AHI.Sacrifice omlou in lawhtak ding omlou khathei hi. Toupa Jesu in A hinna ngoihngoih Amah hong kipia a, e`n I gam, I nam, I khua, I tui hoihna ding leh khantouhna ding a piakkhiak ngam neilou, ihih lehbel, piang vawt sih va, paal luun vawt sih va. Manipur singtanggam a giau deuhdeuh dinga amial deuhdeuh ding hi. TAKE YOUR PICK
Note: Kikhekna khat omleh bang achi dia! I chih utna ahi, thanks.