Laigelh Tungtang Tamlou

LAIGELH TUNGTANG TAMLOU
–Valte Ginkhenpau

ginkhenpauvalte new

LAIGELH HONG KIPATNA

Nidanglai in tulai bang a laimal leh laigelhdan kizentak na om lou hi. Laigelhdan pen Mesopotamia gam a hong kipankhia ahi kichi hi. Mesopotamia i chih Thukhun Lui hunlai a Abraham lenna gam ahi a, tulai in Iraq kichi hi. Himahleh hiai ah theih siam di’a hoih khat om hi. Thukhun Lui Bible a Mesopotamia a kigen chiang in, tulai a Iraq simlam gam kilkhat pen telkha ngeilou hi.

“Mesopotamia” i chih chiang in “Luipi nih kalteh a om gam” chihna ahi a, huai luipi nihte tuh Tigris (Hiddekel) leh Euphrates ahi hi. Huai gam pen Hebrew in Aram, Aram Naharaim ahihke’h Padan-Aram chih in om hi. Mesopotamia simlam gamte, Abraham omna Ur leh khua tuamtuam tampite tel in, Sumer chih in om a, huan hiai gammite “Sumerians” kichi uhi. Huan, mallam gamte, Tigris tel in, Assyria kichi a a gammite Asshur (Assur) ahihke’h “Assyrian” kichi uhi. Bible a Assyrian gam kimuhkhak masaknapen Genesis 2:14 ahi. Hiai Sumer leh Assyria (huai tuh Mesopotamia) simlam leh mallam gamte kal a omte lak ah alaita gam pen Akkad (Accad) chih in om hi. Hiai pen Babylon khopi min tam a phuah ahi a, Bible a hiai khopi min kimuh masaknapen tuh Genesis 10:10 ahi. Hiai Babylon tuh khangthu a mi poimoh Hamurabi leh Nebuchadnezzar chihte hong lal khiakna uh ahi.

Mesopotamia simlam gam (Sumer) a om Sumerian-te’n laigelhdan a hon bawlkhiak uh hidi’a gintak ahi. Amaute’n BC 2500 malam BC 3400-3300 kikal pek a zong laigelhdan chikhat nei khinta uh kichi hi. Himahleh amaute gelhdan pen khanglui mahmah a, tulai a om leh kizang laimalte banglou in gittang khawng in na gelh uhi. Amaute laigelhte pen amalmal a lohging a simtheih di’a gelh hilou in alim gelh a theihsiam thoh di’a gelh hilel zaw hi. Huai omdantak tuh hiai ahi. Etsakna di’n, vasa tampi om ahi chihna di’n vasa lim bangzahhiam gelh uhi. Hiaibang a laigelh pen alim lahthoh a gelh chihna ahi. Archaeologist-te’n hiaibang a laigelhte tampi toukhia uhi. Hichibang a laigelh tuh Laigelhdan masapen ahi.

Khovel hong khantouh zel dungzui in laigelhdan hong khangtou zel in agelhdan chi tuamtuam hong piangkhia hi. Hiaibang a laigelhdan hong khantouhlai hunte lak ah a hun nihna in laimal lohging dingdan hon hilh a, huchibang a phatuam ding mah a bawlkhiak ahi hi. Hiaibang a laigelhdan pen amasa sang in hoihzaw leh zattheih zaw deuh hi. Anunglam in hiai laimalte tuh tulai a kizang laimalte hong kipatna hong suak uhi. Himahleh, hiaibang thil hong tunna di’n kum zatampi kivei hi. Hebrew-te’n a laimal ding uh Phoenician-te apan a laksawn uh ahi a, laimal 22 pha hi. BC 1900-1500 kikal vel a gelh hi di’a gintak Semetic (Hebrew pau chikhat) a kigelh thugelh bangzahhiam Sinai Tang a Serabitel-khadim kichihna mun ah muhkhiak in om ngei hi. Greek-te’n ahihleh Hebrew-te nung in amau laimal ding Phoenician-te leh Armenian-te laimal lakhawm in bawl ua, laimal 24 pha hi. Huchibangmah in Rome-mite’n amau laimal 23-te Greek leh Etruscan-te tungtawn a a neih uh ahi. Amaute apan English-te’n laimal 26 hon neikhia in tuni in Zomite’n leng amaute apan in laimal 24 i nei uhi. Tuchiang in, Paite Laipau Saipawl (Paite Literature Society) in munchih, mualchih a om Zomite toh laigelhdan kibang hong pian ding lunggulhna toh Roman laimalte apan hong kibawlkhia English laimal 26 teng pom uhi. India gam a pau leh laimal lui mahmah tuh Sanskrit ahi a, hiai pau apan laigelhdan chi tuamtuam tampi hong piangkhia hi.

Bible a laigelh di’a thupiak muh masaknapen tuh Exodus 17:14 ahi. Exodus 31:18 leh 32:15,16 chihte ah Pasian in Amah khutmalte ngei zang a Thusawm Piakte gelh ahihdan muh theih hi.
Tanglaimite’n laipuan di’n tungman, khuainun, suangpek, siik, sing, pumpeng leh savun chihte khawng na zang uhi. Laikung di’n pumpeng leh sikzum khawng zang ua; suang, siik leh ataak deuhte gelhna di’n siik zang uh a, huailoute, anip deuh leh gelhnop deuhte ah pumpeng kung ana zang uhi.

NIDANGLAITE LAIPUAN, LAITUI LEH LAIGELHNA
Sawltak Johan in a laikhak nihna ah “...lai leh laitui a gelh ka ut kei...” chi hi (t.12). Khak thumna tang 13 ah “...laitui leh laigelhna in na kiang a gelh ka ut kei hi” chi in na gelh nawn hi. Hiai munte a laipuan, laitui leh laigelhna (laikung) a chihte bangchibang thil hi peuhmah ding hiam chih i en ding.

I. LAI/LAIPUAN:
Nidanglai in tulai bang a laipuan hoihtak a kibawl laibu om lou hi. Tulai ate bang a laipuan hoihtak bawldan pen sawltakpite’ sihkhit vek nung a hong kitheikhia ahi a, tulai a adaldal (apeekpeek) a kilhkhawm a bawl laibute pen ‘codex’ kichi hi. Sawltakpite sihnung in hiai codex laibute hong kithang mahmah in Church Fathers leh saptuam khangthu a laigelhtu minthang mahmahte’n hon hahzat mahmah uhi. Sawltakpite leh Thukhun Lui hunlai a a laipuan zatte uh tulai ate bang lou in savun leh pumpeng khawng a kibawl ahi a, a kep kia gentaklouh a puakveldan zong thunamai hilou in buaihuai mahmah hi. Laipuan hoihtak om kei mahleh laigelhdan a theihna uh bel sawtpi hita ahi chih i genta hi. Bible gelh a a om hunlai in laipuan chi tuamtuam na zang uh a, huaite bangbang hi hiam chih leh a bawldan uh toh kisai tamlou i en ding. Hiai thute pen khovel khangthu a zong thudik ahihban ah nidanglai mi masate zat leh bawldan ahi hi.

(i) Pumpeng (Papyri): Nidanglai in laipuan di’n pumpeng na hahzat mahmah ua, Bible a “Laibu/ Laibute” chi a kigen tampite pen hiai pumpeeng a kibawlte hi tangpi hi. Egypt ah hiaibang a laibu bawl leh laigelh kichi pen BC 3,000 pek a na kizangta ahi a, huainung a Phoenicia khua a Khrist’ pianma kumzabi sawm-le-nih (12) beikuan lam a hong kipawlut ahi kichi hi. Johan in Kilakna 5:1 a laibu a muh pen hiai pumpeng a kibawl laibute ahi. Greek pau a Thukhun

Thak laibu kigelh masapente hiai pumpeng a kibawl laipuante zang a gelh ahi ua, khut a gelh vek ahi hi.
Ahihleh, hiai pumpengte bangchidan a laigelh theihna di’a hong kibawl ahia? Papyrus kichi tuh eilam a pumpeng i chihte toh kibang hi ding a gintakna om man in huai min i zang ahi. Khovel ah pumpeng chii tuamtuam tampi om a, a omna mun leh gam hoih dungzui in a kungte lian in neu thei hi. Hiai papyrus-te ahihleh Nile luipang bang, dawplak bang, leh luidung khawng ah pou tangpi hi. Himahleh tulai in bel Nile luipangte ah zong om nawn ngellou hidan in kigen hi.

Hiai papyrus-te kila in a sungmu kipaihkhia a, apeek in kiphoukeu hi. A hong keugawt chiang in azingzing a kalhelh (gaan) in kikoih a, khatte tung ah adang koih in kibelhkip hi. Khenkhatte lah a mong tuak uh peh in saupi zialtheih a, laibuzial (scrolls) kichi hi. Tuate Greek ah “Biblos” ahihke’h “Biblion” kichi a, hiai thumalte apan in tuni a “Bible” i chih hong piangkhia hi. Adiktak a gen in “byblos” kichi tuh pumpeng chikhat min ahi a, hiai zang a laibu bawl a om ahihman in “laibu” chihna hong suak khong hi. Huan, Byblos kichi mah tuh Phoenicia gam a khopi min khat toh kinaih mahmah hi. Hiai khopi min tuh “Gebal” ahi a, Greekte’n Byblos chi a a theih uh ahi. Thukhun Lui Bible, Sam 83:7; Eze.27:9 chihte ah hiai khopi min kimu hi.

Hiai pumpengte a kibawl laibute/laipuante zang a lai gelh ahih chiang in aphei (adung) zawng in kigelh a, hichibang a gelh pen baihlam leh nuamzaw kichi hi. Hiaibang a laibu kibawlte pen zangkhai in kep zong nuam a, a puakvial zong nuam kichi hi. Adangte toh teh in a kep leh a puakvel nuam mahleh tou khollou (sawtdaih lou) a, se pahpah hi. Tua ahihman in, laikhen khawlpi a kibawlkhiak matan in hiai khutgelh Lai Siangthoute pen haksatak in khut mah in kigelhkhe tou ngitnget hi. Khut zang a gelhkhiak touhtouh ahihman in Lai Siangthou bu pumpi gelhkhiak vekna ding in hun sawt lut petmah hi. A gelhkhiak kia gentaklouh a laipuan bawldan lel zong haksa ahihman in aman zong tam a, mi khat in kum khat sung a kilohleh Bible bu pumpi khat leizou pan kichi hi. Laibuzialte bangzahhiam lakhawm in cylindrical box ah kikoihkhawm zel a, tua a kikoihnate pen Latin pau in “Capsa” kichi hi. II John 12 a “laipuan” chi a kilet pen a Greek ah “Chartes” ahi a, pumpeng chikhat min mah ahi hi. Tuamah bang in, II Timothy 4:13 a sawltakpi Paul in “...laibute khawng toh hon tawi in...” a chihna a “laibute” a chih pen a Greek ah “Biblion” ahi. Hiai mah zong pumpeng zang a laibu kibawlte genna mah ahi hi. Huaiziak in, John leh Paul in tulai ate bang a kibawl laibute gen hilou in pumpeng a kibawlte gen ahi zaw uhi. John in hiaibang laipuante zang a lai gelh ding pen utlou chi hi. (II Jn. 12 en in). Pumpeng tuh laipuan kia a zat hilou in seeng, lohbeu, leh naang zat bang a kizang ahi kichi hi.

ii) Savun (Parchment): Nidanglai a laipuan ding a ana zat uh dang khat ahihleh “parchment” kichi ahi. Hiai pen savun a kibawl ahi a, pumpeeng a kibawlte sang in touzaw hi. Belam vun, keel vun leh huaibang ganhingte vun a kibawlte pen “parchment” kichi tangpi a, abaihlam a gen in, savun a kibawl laipuante khempeuh parchment kichi hi. Himahleh, bawngnou vun a kibawlte pen ‘vellum’ kichituam hi. Greek pau in parchment kichi tuh “membrana” ahi a, Latin pau apat kilasawn ahi. Hiai thumal apat mah in English thumal “membrane” kichi hong piangkhia hi. Ahitak in hiai thumal tuh Asia Minor a om Pergamum khopi minthang mahmah khat ahi. Hiai savun a kibawl laibute pen touzaw deuh ahihman in Thukhun Thak Bible gelh hun in kihahzat mahmah lai hi. Sawltakpi Paul in Timothy kiang ah “...savun lai mahmah hon tawi in” chi in na vaikhak hi (2 Tim. 4:13). Hiai a “savun lai” a chih pen parchment ahi. Hiai tangkal khat sung ah, thumal nih (laipuan chii nih) gen in om hi. Khat na ah “laibute” a chih pen biblion ahi a huai tuh pumpeng a kibawlte genna ahi. Anihna tuh “savun lai” a chih pen hi a, parchment ahi. Hiai parchment kichi tuh savun akibawl laibute genna ahi. Huaiziak in Paul in laipuan chii nihte na genkha hi.

Hiai pumpengte leh savun a kibawl laibute genlouh adang leng tampi om hi. Akhente’n singpek tung a khuainun (wax) taak in sikzum hiam thilzum khatpeuh in gelh uh a, himahleh hiaite’n sawt daih lou uhi. Khenkhatte’n lah leibel bawl in a hong keu ma deuh in apang peuh ah thil gelh ua, hiaite’n bel laitui ne mahmah kichi hi. Hichibang a leibel khawng a thil gelhte pen “ostraca” kichi a, mi nautang in zang ua, zong kithang mahmah hi. Hiaibang a thil gelhte Egypt leh Palestine gam khawng ah kimu deuh hi. Huchimah bang in, thil gelh sawt daihdeuh khat tuh tungman hoihtak a kimaihtaak tung a gelh ahi a, Middle East ah Thukhun Lui hunlai in kihahzat mahmah hi. Hiaite a gelhna ding in vanzat zumtak leh hiamtak poimoh hi.

Hichibang a thil kigelhte Euphrates leh Tigris luikuam a Babylonia leh Assyria lenggam omna munte bang, Persia bang, Siria bang, Asia Minor bang, huan Egypt chihte khawng ah kimu hi. Tungman khenkhatte kil thum nei in kibawl a a dawn lam sang in a bullam sahzaw a, hiaite pen “cuneiform” laigelhte toh kibang hi. Teklei bangsim a laigelhte’n sawtkhop daih mahleh gik leh sah lua ahihman in a kep leh puakveldan lemtang khollou hi. Tulai a khenkhatte laibu neih zah hiai tekleite ah kigelh in kikemleh bangzahta a tam in gik ding hiam chih ngaihtuahtham ching hi. Alehlam ah, tou kholkei mahleh pumpeng a kibawl laibute pen zangkhaizaw in a puakvel leng nuamzaw a, a kep ngei leng nuamzaw hi.

Thil gelh sawt daihpen tuh suang khuak a gelh ahi. Hiaibang a gelhna ding in siik a kibawl laikung poimoh a, a gelh hunsung zong sawt hi. Job in, “ Siik leh ngeen gelhna zum in khantawn a ding in suangpi a gelh hile uh zaw” chi in na gen hi (19:24). Siik leh ngeen zang a suangpi a gelh in sawtpi daih ahi chih Job in ana thei mahmah hi. Huaimah bang in, tuni tan in eite’n leng hansuang leh mualsuang khawngte ah phawktawntungna ding in thu i gelhsek uhi. Job hunlai pek a hiaibang a thil gelh na omta ahihman in mihingte’n suang a thugelhdan a theihna uh sawt petmahta ahi chih a muhtheih hi.

II. LAITUI:
Khangluimite’n tulai ate bangbang laitui nei uh hiam chih leh bangchibang a laitui bawl uh hiam chihte dotna poimohtak ahi hi. Tuhun a laitui kizangte pen damdawi toh hel a bawl ahi a, himahleh nidanglai pek ate bel huchibang hilou hi. Ahihleh John in “laitui” a chih bangchibang hi a, bang chi kibawl ahi ding?

II John 12 leh III John 13 a “laitui” chi a kilette pen a Greek ah “melan” ahi a, huai tuh “vom” (black) chihna ahi. Bangziak a John in laitui genna a thumal “vom” chih zang hiam? Nidanglai mite’n laitui a bawl chiang un meihol toh, tui toh, thilman (gum) helkhawm uhi. Meihol pen gawivui a tui toh a hel chiang un rong vom suak a, thilman toh a hon helkhawm nawn chiang un man diakdiak in belhthei hi. Laipuan a a hon gelh chiang un meihol pen in vomsak ahihman in muh baihlam a, gum in laipuan ah belhsakthei a kekhe pah lou hi. A gelh a nopzawk a a nal deuhna ding in tui toh hel nawn uhi. Himahleh tulai ate bang lou in sawt daih thei lou hi. Aziak tuh, laibu pen kiphen leh kisim gige ahihman ahi hi. A rong vom ahihman in John in laitui a genna a “melan’’ chih thumal a zat pen lamdang lou hong suak hi. Huan, Josephus in a gendan in, tanglai pek apan laitui rong chi tuamtuam ana om a in a san, dum, sandup, ngou leh a eng rong chihte zong ana kizang hi.
Ban ah, tanglaimite’n a laigelhte uh nulmangna ding in uain thuk (sponge) zang uhi.

III. LAIGELHNA/LAIKUNG:
Tanglai in “ball pen”, “fountain pen” leh “youth pen” kichite om lou hi. Fountain pen a kimuhkhiak ma a “type-writer” kimukhia ahi chih ahihman in laigelhna ahihkeileh laikung hoihtaktakte a kimuhkhiakna sawt lawtel nailou chihna suak hi. Ahihleh, khangluite’n bang ana zang uh ahi ding?

Job hunlai pek in mite’n siik leh ngeen zang in suang ah ana gelh uh chih i gen khinta hi. Huai nungtham, tuhun in leng hiai pen kizang denlai hi. Hiai pen suang a gelhdan ahi a, laipuan a gelhdan pen hong tuam zek nawn hi. Laikung ding in pumpeng zang uhi. Pumpeng mong langkhat suizum uh a, meihol, tui leh thilman a kibawl laitui ah diah in gelh uhi. II John 13 a “laigelhna” chi a kiletkhia pen a Greek ah “kalamos” ahi a, huai tuh “pumpeng, laigelhtu’ pumpeng” chi in J.H. Thayer in hilhchian hi. Hiai thumal Thukhun Lui leh Thukhun Thak Bible mun bangzahhiam ah zat in om hi. Latin pau in “calamus” kichi a, akhiatna bel Greek a toh kibang hi. Laigelhna ding in akmul a zang uh chi pawl zong om hi. Bangteng hileh, III John pansan a gen in, Lai Siangthou gelhna in pumpeng ana zang uh a chih theih hi. Khangthu ah mi a tuam dungzui in vanzat tuamtuam zang in ana gelh maithei uhi. Himahleh huai tengteng gen kim vek thei lou i hihman in Bible pansan a i gen theihte i gen hi zaw hi.

Hiaibang thilte zang a laigelh chih pen kin thei hetlou ding hi. Laitui a diah kouhkouh kichi tuh zekaihuaitak khat ahi a, a laitui neng takkhekha chih bang zong omthei ahihman in zat nuam lawtel khollou ding hi. Huai ban ah, tulai a bang a kintak a gelh chih omthei lou ding hi. Huaiziak in, nidanglai hun a Bible bu pumpi khut a teisawn ding chih pen thunamai hilou chih chiang hi. A thu teisawn kia in hun lou di’a, a thil gelhte uh hong keu phot zong phamoh ding hi. Zekaihuai petmah ding chihna suak hi. Hiaibang hunlai a laigelhtute pen phathuai leh zahtakhuai petmah uhi. Laigelh haksa lua ahi ngei ding a, mite’n Lai Siangthou a teisawn chiang un a kimlou peuh, ahihke’h a kibehlap peuh omkha naknak hi. Huaiziak in, “khutgelh kingakna taaklou” (unreliable manuscripts) kichi tampi hong piang kholoh hi.

Laksawnna: Ginkhenpau, Valte, Greek Sintung Bu, ©V. Ginkhenpau, 2002. Published by Vungkhum Guite for Truth Library Publications, Tangnuam. Printed at Thawn’ Saau Printing Works, New Lamka.

Laibu ette:
1. The Books And The Parchments by F.F. Bruce
2. Greek-English Lexicon Of The New Testament by J.H. Thayer
4. The Interlinear K.J.V. (Greek) by George Ricker Berry
5. Brian M. Fagan, Charlotte Beck, ed. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 762. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9.

©Valte Ginkhenpau, 2019