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Lampi, Lamka te lampi

LAMPI, LAMKA TE LAMPI
Written by Thangmuansang Guite
thangmuansangguite
Lampi poimoh dan I thei chiat. Politic, economic, culture leh lam tuamtuam ah a poimoh a impact a nei chih i thei hi. A neitu (kineisak?) leng a tam a, lampi omkei leh bandth i bangchi bawl mah dia mo?

I zero point uh (Police station) apat Lanva lui tan, kilometer 2 ching lou di sorkal in hon zut maam pek-pak bangtuh naupang muamkhum leisak bangmai in aneu-alian iki thalawp uhi. Heutute adi’n leng a thanawp huai ngeel ding.

Lampi a poimoh ziak mah in Sorkal in Ministry tuamtuam lampi lam sai ding in bawlkhia in research and development lam leng ki naak bawl mahmah hi. Khenkhat te- Indian Roads Congress (IRC), Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH), Central Roads Research Institute (CRRI), National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), etc. Hiaiteng baan ah Academic Institutions (Civil Engineering Institutes) leh state chih a PWD (Roads) a omlai. Hiaite tungtawn in sum tam pipi invest ahi hi. A role play uh tuam chiat in poimoh mahmah chiat hi.

Civil engineering hiang (branch) 6 a kikhen lak a khat ahi a, Transportation engineering kichi hi. Hiai transportation engineering kichi lianpi ahi a, lampi lam baan ah Airport, waterways, Railway/metro chihte uap hi. Lampi lam ahihchiang in traffic leh pavement om nawn leuleu hi. Pavement lam I ensuk zualzual ding.

Lampi chi nih:
Civil engineering ah lampi chi nih in kikhen hi. Huaituh rigid pavement leh flexible pavement ahi. Rigid pavement I chih chia zanlam a Job Card a veng phatuamngai khenkhat ten i bawldan pian te uh ahi. Himahleh abawldan di Indian Roads Congress (IRC) in a bikhaih a om hi.
lampi1 
 lampidiagram1
Rigid pavement kichi te concrete blocks in kibawl in a kaal a contraction joints kikoih hi. Hiai tuh sun nisat chiang banga concrete pen khang(expand) ahih chiang a ah khaang(crack) louh nang ahi. Hiai block te siik (dowel bars) in kizom hi.
Flexible pavement i chihnawn leuleu chiang in al-ka-tara zanga kibawl lampi te ahi. Hichibang lampi te bawldan ding leng IRC mah in hichi-khachi a bawldi chih anei detdet hi.
lampi2 
Flexible pavement (al-ka-tara lampi) te bel anuai pen a lei pang in, atung a base leh sub-base course te ah boulders/balu shingle te pang in a tung penpen ah surface course in al-ka-tara leh leingoi/suanghuum kigawm in kizuut maam hi.

IRC specification dan a akibawl chiangin bel Rigid pavement te kum 25 tan bang daihdia bawl ahi (design life). Flexible pavement te bel kum15-20 tan daihdia bawl/design ahi tang pi. I Zogam ua lampi te bel sia baih deuh se uh akale.

Al-ka-tara lampi bawl nang in “IRC 37:2001 Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements” leh rigid pavement bawl nang in “IRC 58:2002 Guideline for the design of plain jointed rigid pavements for highways” te IRC in laboratory leh field a suina nasatak aneih nung a zuihdia abawl ahi.

Ahididan in bel, lampi peuh akibawl mah in survey leh study akibawl masa. Hiaite ahi tangpi hi- traffic density (gari tai zah), traffic growth rate (gari pung haat zah), vehicle damage factor (gari taite’ gikdan a kinga), soil subgrade investigation (a lampi kibawl na di mun a lei taak dan; California Bearing Ratio, CBR kichi a ki teh), temperature (lampi kibawl na di mun a khualum leh votdan) leh vuah zuk dan. Hiaiteng baan ah material kizang di te, adiak in suang (aggregates) te test ahi hi. Al-ka-tara ngei leng chituamtuam om in, a grade in kikhen hi. VG10, VG30 chihbang in. VG kichi viscosity grade chihna ahi a, asat chia a nem baan a aluang baih dan etna ahi. VG10 te hiai a zat di, VG30 te huai a zat di chih om hi.

Information poimoh teng ngah ahih chiang in Design ki bawl hi. Civil Engineering design dang bangin mathematical calculation complicate sim mahmah ahi a, hih det-det ngai in tedious mahmah hi. Lampi hiaizah a sah ding chih khuat khiat ahihchiang in mix design bawl ahi. Mix design chih chiang in al-ka-tara hiaizah percent, suang 4.57mm size te hiaizah weight, huaizah size te hiaizah weight chihte om sipsip hi. Hiai mix design tuh laboratory a sample bawl in test ahilai hi (Marshall Apparatus zang in). Anuai ah IRC:37-2001 apat pek khat kon thuah.
lampidiagram3 
A lampi pen a kuul bang a design louh leh bawl louh ahihchiang in sia pah a, pavement distress kichi hi. Pavement distress chi-18 tan bang om hi.
Thudang khat ah, tua I lampi uh kibawl khenkhat in a al-ka-tara a chiil hel lua peuh I chi uhi.
 
Tampi hon hel mawk le uh nisat mahmah chiang bang in a al-ka-tara hon tuui leh I lampi te uh naal law zeap-zuap dia ki tawtah a om di ake. Lampi kibawl thak bel atunga limlak banga a sa om phing-pheng di mah ahi. Hiai in skid resistance a pia hi.
IRC tuh India a lampi (lei/bridge leng tel) design specifications lam a thunei ahi a, amau gendan in India a lampi 95% tan bang al-ka-tara zanga kibawl ahi. Aziak bel al-ka-tara a bawl kiman zaw leh a al-ka-tara mah amuhnop zawk ziak ahipen mai.

Al-ka-tara tangthu:
Al-ka-tara bel crude oil- thautui filter louh lei apat laihsuah apat kingah ahi. Crude oil pen fractional distillation process kichi in ki filter in a siang penpen bel siang lua, a huih a om hizezen-gas/LPG chihte ahi. Hiai nuai ah petrol kingah a, lei a tai gari te a thautui in kizang a hiai nuai ah chemical khenkhat leh lenna thautui, huaikhit a siang lou zaw deuh te apat kerosene kingah hi. A tawlam ah al-katara (bitumen) chihte kingah hi.
Hiai al-ka-tara lampi bawlna a honki zat patna thu a tangthu tuamtuam omte lak a khat bel Industrial Revolution Europe a hong om in, crude oil apat thautui khong kia a lak khiat chiang un al-ka-tara vom ngem-ngum te a zat nang omlouh in ek paih in pai sek uhi. Azat nang om ngel di hivaw chi in lampi bawlna a hon zang kha uh chih ahi.

Lampi bawlna meikhu lua akale:
Tua al-ka-tara a lampi kibawl te Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) kichi ahi. Aziak bel 149°C to 176°C kikal a sa a huan angaih ziak in. Asphalt bel Amelika ten al-ka-tara agen na uh ahi. Hiai apat meikhu in environmental impact hoihlou hau mahmah hi. (Zogam a bel lampi kibawl ngei mangkei a poivak lou, chih di lah hikei deuh mo?)
Huaiziak in Warm Mix Asphalt kichi, bang-bang hiam (additives) hel a 140°C tan khong lel a kihuan a lampi bawltheih nang in research naktak in kibawl a, India mun khenkhat a kizang ta hi. Hiai in mei-khu kiam sak mahmah in a huan na in fuel leng ki save pha mahmah hi. Bouruak/environment ading in ahoih zaw mahmah ding. Transportation engineering section, IIT-Guwahati ah leng research kibawl naak mahmah hi. Cold Mix asphalt kichi leng research pai lellel hi. A vot ngial ding.
(15.April.2014)

COMMENT (1) PHA TA..  
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#1#1 lemthei » 2014-04-17 18:20

Sang, na gelh hoih lua ei, dam sawt in! Nam le gam ki-it ciat, neknek leh siksik thuah (a khantouhna diing contribution pekha lou!?) hih theih na kal ah, na thugelh manpha sa ing. Siamna nei tam naikei mahle'ng line| stream tuamtuam a theihna tungtuang nei te'n KA NAM ADI'N BANG KA GELH/ SEEM DIA'M... ZOGAM LIANGVAI HONG PALNA DI'N GELH/ SEEM NING MAW i cih theih ua pan i laak uh kuul lua hi.

Huan, media (dotcom te hi'n printed leh electronic te hitaleh) lamte'n watch-dog of the public interest hihna thei kilkel kawm a, thudik tawisang a hah bem pilpel hun ahita. Toupa thupha!

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