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Zomi Nomenclature

This paper was presented on the Workshop On Nomenclature during the Siamsinpawlpi Imphal Block: Annual Conference-cum-Election dated 1st November 1993 at Pu Hangkhanlian’s Residence Lamphel, Imphal, Manipur.

ZOUMI NOMENCLATURE

Tualchin Neihsial,
Research Scholar, Manipur University,
Canchipur, Imphal.

 

Imphal Block Siamsinpawlpite’ innteekna nuai a Zoumi Nomenclature toh kisai a Seminar paper khat gelh dia Siamsinpawlpi vaipawte’n a hon ngetna uh dawnna in hiai ah paper ka hon luikhia hi.

Pau-le-haam, beh-le-phung, meel-le-puam, tawndan-le-ngeinate kikhat leh kibang, mi khat leh sa khat (B.S. Carey & H.N. Tuck 1896:2 & William Shaw 1929:16) himahle hang min kikop khat i zat louh ziak un i lak uah kipumkhatna taktak a om thei kei a, min thu ah genkhawm thak leh kikupkhawm thak a kul lailai hi. Hiai Paper i sim toh kizui a i lungsim ua om dia deihhuai nih a om a, khatna ah, United Nations Organization (UNO) in kum 1993 pen Year of Indigenous Peoples a aphuan toh kituak a Draft Declaration khat a bawl uh : Draft Declaration on Indigenous Rights As Rewritten By the Working Group On Indigenous Populations After the 1992 Sessions, As Found In Annex 1. Report of the Group On Indigenous Populations On Its Tenth session E/ON.4/SUB.2/33 Part II Item 10 a kigen bang in, “Indigenous peoples have the right to receive, use, develop, promote and transmit to future generations their own language, writing system and literature, and to designate and maintain their own names of communities, places and persons. States shall take effective measures to ensure that indigenous can understand and be understand in political, legal and administrative proceedings, where necessary through the provision of interpretation or by other effective means” ei pianpih min zat theih ahih thu kimu hi. Min bel a neitu in a deih kei leh a mah thu in khek thei hi. Nihna ah, “simsing bang a gil”, “Lumsuang bang a kip/khou” ahih kia hilou in mite’n hon got minte zangzaw diing maw? eite kichihna min? chih ahi hi. Khanglui pau zual lengh “Inngua hahzaw diing maw? gamgua?

Midangte’n khapi (moon) leh solte (planets) nasan a buseh a sawm lai un ei pawl in i min dik or i hihna taktak bang ahia chih nangawn thei zou lou in minam min diing i buaipih lailai hi. A vai nanung zaw i hi peuhmah hi. Upate’n, “vai nanung vuahsia in lap” a chih uh tangtung petmah diing hita lou hiam? chi a i om laitak in Mangkangte’ thupil khat in, “better late than never= hih ngei louh hial sang in zekai a hoihzaw” na chi ahihteh bul-le-baal leh kingakna diktak nei lou a mite’ hon mihsitna lehhon elkouna minte sihngam a i gup sang in, zekai himah le hang a dik leh a tang zekaitak in pom leng nakpitak in metzaw hi. Leitung khangthu bute leh Laisiangthou (1 Cor.10:11; 1Tim.4:1; Heb.1:1,2; 1John 1:18) i sim leh tulai hun pen hun nanung ahihkei leh khang tawplam dan in i mu ua, a ni dan in gen leng nitum dek kuan hi diing hi. Ni a tum dek chiang in zu leh vate zong a kuate uh leh a bute uh lam a zot mah bang un eite’n zong i nu i pate kiang, i pu i pate’n teenna leh luahna dia gam ana bawl khiak uh ZOUGAM a i luut a, Zoumi Innkuan i phungvuh diing kisamta hi. Common Nomenclature thu a gammang leh taimangte’n zong i pu uh Zou kiang zuan in tapa taimang bang a innlam a hon zot diing uh ahi hi.

Tulel a i luah Zougam khuambang i luah ma un Kawlzang [atuung in Khawlzang kici masa a,anunglam a Kawlzang hong kikhek thak](Upper Burma) ah ei mah kumpi (Leeng =Mang) nuai ah nuamsa in kum za tampi i om hi. Hibang a i pupate amau –le- amau kumpi nei a a om lai un a kumpite leh a hausate uh Zou (Shou) a chih ban uah a teenna leh a luahna gam uh zong Zougam (Zou country) mah na chi pah uh ahihlam Chinate leh Mangkangte’ laibu gelhte ah kimu hi. Hibang a Kawlzang a nuamsa leh thupitak a aom lai un Mallam(China) akipat in Tartarte’n (Mongolte’n) a hong dou ua, kum 30 vel kia hong ukkhum uh himahleh “gam khat leh leitang khat tung ah kumpi kikhat lou nih in khatvei thu a vai a hawm ngeina ahi kei” chih thu paulap in i Zou kumpite leh i Zou hausate a hong thahsak ua, a khente ahihleh a hong hawlkhiaksak ua, hiai Tartarte lauhna ziak in “sialek deenkeek bang in” sak leh khang ah a hong taizaak ua, pawl khatte Siam (Thailand) ah, pawlkhatte pen tulai a Chin Hills leh Arakan Hill tracts ah a tai ua, himahleh tampite bel huai kiim leh huai mun mah a omden in tuni dong in amau leh amau Asho (AZou), Yaw (Zou), Sho (Shou) mah kichi in siam lou pipi in kawlpau leh zoupau a zangtuah uhi. Tartarte’n hon nutsiat nung lah Shante (Tai-Pong) leh Kawlte (Burmeses = Myanmas) ziak in zangsung ah innkip loukip nei zou nawn tuan lou in tua i luahna Zougam lam manoh in hong kikhinkhia ua, hibang a gam leh leitang kituhna leh sa-le-gaal lauhna ziak a taite’n innlum-loulum nei zou pah lou ahihman in singhawm-suanghawm, kawlhawm peuh a hon beel masa ua, huaite khul a kichi hi. Khul pen unau Luseite’n Chinlung a chi ua, Hmarte’n Sinlung a chi ua, khenkhat in khurpui achi uhi. Hiai khulte lak ah Saizang gam a Khul bang, Falam gam a Lailun khul bang chiamteh tham ching pawl ahi uhi. Hiai khul munte akipat in awl-awl in Chiimnuai khua, Geeltui khua, Luika khua, Zangpitam khua, Locom khua,Baalzang khua leh mun dangdang ah a hong teeng ua, hun a hong sawt chiang in,

(1) Hausa (Chieftainship) leh tuulpi (priesthood) neihna hong kipan a;
(2) Beh min leh nam min neihna leh huaite a kilohna hong kipan a;
(3) Khomin leh teenna mun leh mual min a kilohna hong kipat toh kituak in pau-le-haam tuamtuam (various local dialects) hong piang hi.

Kale-Kabaw-Myitha phaizang a kipat a tulai Zougam sung a Khulte leh Chiimnuai khuate a hong kisaat hun pen A.D. 1200-1300 kikal sung hi a, hibang a singtang gamsang leh vot a hong teen ma tham un zong Zoumi (lapau in Zoutui) na hi khin uh ahihlam i theithei hi. Kumzabi 12/13 vel in

Tartarte’n a hong sim ua, huai hun leh nung akipat a Kawlzang a kipat a kidalhzaak pan ahih thu i gen zou hi. Tartarte hong kilat ma thamtham in, huai bel A.D. 862 kum a Chinesete’ Diplomat khat Fan cho in a Laibu Manshu ah a hausate uh leh a kumpite uh Zou (Shou) a chi uh chih na gelh khin hi. Hiai toh kizawitawn in khangthu suut minthang pu Thawng khaw hau, Thangtuan, Sing Khaw Khai, Dr. Vum Ko Hau, Dr. Vumson leh adangdang in eite hon suangtu bulpi min Zou mah ahi chiin na suut chiat uhi. Khangthu a kigen Songthu (Chongthu), Songza, Zahong chihte pawl hun pen Khul beel a hong teen hun uh ahi hi. Hiai Songthute malam suutna khangthu (beh taangthu) khenkhat ah eite hon suangtu bulpi Zou ahi a, Kachinte suangtu suangtu Zingphaw (Singpho) ahi a, amaute geel ki- unau himahleh uh a vial pempem na lam uah hong kimangsak kha in, Kachiinte’n Zoumite’ khekhap/suulnung muphaban lel ahihman un tuni dong “khang” a hon chi uh chih hi mu hi. Pu Zingphaw suante’n inn a lam chiang un innkong lam ah pindan khat a koih ua, huai pen i ute (Zoumite) aa diing ahi achi uhi. Kachinte toh kisai a Dr. G.A. Grierson in Linguistic Survey of India Vol.III part II (1904) pp.449-500 ah hibang in gen hi:

“In Burma they are called Kachins. The Burmese word Chin is applicable to any hill tribes of barbarous habits. Thus, the Chins are called so by the Burmans, but they have nothing to do with the Kachins. The spelling Kakhyen represents the old form which still lives in the mouth of the people in Lower Burma. In the Upper Burma Khy and Ky are pronounced ch though the older form is written.
The Kachins call themselves Zhingpaw or, dialectically, Singpho (or Zingphaw)... The Tai call the Kachins “Kang”, the Chinese call them Ye-jen=wild men, or when they choose to be polite, shan-teo, heads of the hills.

A himhim thu in ei pawl bel Chinate bang a pu- le- pate’ min a kilou minam i hi hi. Etsakna diing in tuni a i beh leh phung minte pen i pu leh pate’ hihna leh mima’l min ngenta ahi uhi. China khangthute i et leh B.C. 1100-770 B.C. leh A.D. 557-581 hun in Western Zhou leh Northern Zhou Dynasties na om a, hiai hun a mite pen Zhou people (ei pau in let leng Zhou mi) chih in a om ua, a gam zong Zhou plain (Zou zaang/ Zoukuam) mah kichi pah hi. (vide China Handbook Series History translated by Dun Li (1982),p. 5-8 & A Concise History of China page 10, ah, “After the Zhou people had migrated several times and their leader Tai Wang had moved to Zhou’s plain i.e. the present day Shan country, they gradually become strong and adopted Zhou as the name of their territory”ci hi.

A lamdang mahmah khat bel hiai Zhou (Chou) Dynasty hun lai leh tanglai a Zoumi nam khenkhatte’ customs leh practices tampi a kibatna ahi. A gam, a mi leh thil tampite Zhou (Zou) toh akithuahna thu uh leh hausa neihna, kosah dia gan leh mihing (silate) zatna thu ah. (Tien ko “Tombs With Sacrificial Salves, Early Western Chou Dynasty” New Archaeological Finds In China II 1978,pp32ff leh T.N. Tuck & Carey: The Chin Hills Vol 1 (1896,pp.203-204 enkak in). Hibang kibatna omte ziak in khangthu suutmi tampite’n abiik in Dr. Ginzatuang, Langh Thawn Pau etc in hiai Zhou Dynasty hun a hong lalkhe te pen Zoumi kichi himai dan in a hon suut uhi. Bang teng hileh British recordtuamtuamte akipat in China apan hong kipan i hihlam nial vual louh a thu om ahi a, khangthu a i muhna ah Kawlzang ah Zou a kichi uh chi kigen khinta hi.

Chindwin (Tuikang) phaizaang a Zoumite leh Kawlte (Burmeses) hong kithuah (contact) leh hong teenkhawm khak ciang un ei –le- ei kicihna sang in bawm pua seng pua i hihna pen zang in Khyen (Chin) a hong chi ua, i teenna gam zong Chindwin (Chin= Burmese name for Zoumi; Dwin= phaizaang, area, region). “Chindwin ma Chin si de, sadwin ma sa si de= Tuikang zaang (Chindwin) ah Zoumite om dia, cikhuk (saltwell) ah chi (salt) om diing hi” chih Kawlte’n paunak khat in na nei uhi. Chin pen mun tamzaw ah simmohna leh muhsitna min a kizang ahi (Chinboke, Chinme). Tunai zek in ahihleh lawm (alley,comrade,friend) chihna a le leh[khiak] theih ahi chiin hon revolutionalize sawm ua, himahleh hibang interpretation thak pen a gammite mahmah in a pom theihlouh ziak un Burmese Parliament nasan ah Mindat a kipat M.P. khat pu Tunaung in na nial hi. Chin (Khyen) kichi ei tualsuak ahi kei a,kuamah beh min,kuamah’ pu leh pa’min ahihlouh ban ah, kuamah pau ah leng a om kei a, la phuahna ah leng tuni dong a kizang thei nai kei. Tumlam laigelhtute’n a mite’n Chin chih a thei kei ua, a pom leng a pom ngei kei himhim uh chih ana gelhvek phial uhi. Sir. J.George Scott in a laibu Burma: A Handbook of Practical Information (1911), pek 104 ah, “..the names Kuki and Chin are not national, and have been given to them by their neighbours. Kuki is an Assamese or Bengali name given by them to all the hill tribes in their neighbourhood. Chin is the Burmese name given to all the people in the country between Burma and Assam. The Chins call themselves Zho, or Sho, Yo,or Lai”

Sir. George Scott laibu mah Burma and Beyond (1932), pek 187 ah, “Like others, the people do not accept the name given to them by the Burmese and Ourselves; they do not call themselves Chins, and they equally flout the name of Kuki which their Assamese and Bengali neighbours use. They call themselves Zhou or Shu, and in other parts Yo or Lai” achi hi. Hiai ah Zou chih thu ah gen diing/hilhchet diing a kul nawn kei a, Lai or Laimi toh kisai tam lou i gen diing hi. Lai kichi in khiakna nih nei hi: Khatna ah, Gamlai, munlai, central,middle,Laizou; Nihna ah, Eimi, tualsungmi, khosungmi, chihna ahi hi. Tualthat i chih Laithat (Falam), Lainawng (Haka), Khual leh Tual i chih Khual leh lai (Falam & Haka). Hiai a tung a Lai kizatna nih i gente lou eite’ khiakna dang khat a om lai a huai pen gaal, melma chihna ahi (lapau in laimi/lalmi). 1953 akipat in official tak in Chin sang in Zoumi zatna hong kipan hi. Zomi Baptist Convention (ZBC), Zomi Baptist Academy, Zomi Christian chih bang in. Burma pen Myanmar a hong kikhek toh kituak in Zomi National Congress (ZNC) hong kiphuan a, amau zong 1988 December kha in declaration khat bawl in tua ah, “So we contend that the word Chin was imposed upon us. Whatever its origin and meaning could have been. Thus we declare that Zo was and is the only word by which we have always designated ourselves in history...we contend that where the word Chin was of local origin, probably in Burma, Zo had originated in a remote past, probably long before a date indicated by any present historical evidence... Therefore we declare that all other words including Chin, but Zou (Zo) are all denominational in relation to Zo in origin and reference. We proclaim that the racial name Chin should be done away with and Zo must be reinstated to its proper place and status of racial identity” achi uhi.

ZBC ah nam teng phial a tel ban ah Rangoon leh Mandalay Universities Zomi Association ah nam teng mah atelvek ua, zaangsung a teeng Asho-te[Azhoute] nangawn atel uhi. Abulpi leh a gammite’n a deihlouh banghang a eite’n deih lailai diing i hi hiam?

I gensa bang in A.D. 1600 vel a Chin Hills akipat population explosion a hong om ciang in, tulai Lushai Hills, Assam, Tripura(Tipura), Chittagong hill Tracts, Mangkang gamkeekte’n nunglam a Manipur hong huamsakna gam sung tungte pen Assamese leh Begalite’n Kooky, Cucis, or Kuki ana ci uhi.

Kuki kici 1512 kum in Tripura leengte’ taangthu ah kimu masapen hi. Chittagong leh Tripura khawng ah Bengalite’n Kuki a zatdan uh ahihleh mineu, mimawl, bang mah thei lou cihna a zat uh ahi. Kuki kici ei pianpih min ahi kei a, pu leh pate’ min ahihlouh ban ah kuamah beh min leng ahi kei a, tuni dong in Kuki min/Kuki zang in la a kiphuak thei nai kei hi. Mangkangte’n leng hiai min mah zang in hong ciamtehtou zel ua, i theihlouh kal in Kuki cih in i om kha uhi. Lushai gam a Mangkang kumpi leh Luseite hong kidou ciang un leh Mangkangte’n Lusei gam a hong laak ciang un kuamah in Kuki na thei kha lou,na deih lou leh na zang kha kekeuh louh uh ahihman in hausa nam khat Lusei pansan in Lushai a hong ci ua, a gam zong Lushai Hills a hong hi mai hi. Lushai pen Lusei a kipan ahi a, Duhlian pau zang, Sailo hausate’ vaihawmna nuai a omte a hi deuh biik uhi. Anung in a gam pumpi a teengte huap a zat a hong hi hi. Mangkangte’n Lusei a cih siam louh ziak ua Lushai hong suak ahi ciin A.W. Davis, Dr. Grierson, John Shakespearte’n ciantak in na ciamteh uhi. Lushai Hills a omte’n Lushai leh Kuki dik leh hoih hi a a theih louh ziak un 1946 April 9 in Mizo in hong kikhek ua, a gam min leh a mite leng a hong kipumkhekzou uh ci leng i genkhialpi kei diing hi. Huap leh tup lianpi nei a Mizo hong kipan himahleh a practical a hong kizat ciang in Duhlian pau(Mizo tawng) zangte’n a tanbawl ua, a dangte’n leng a piakbawl vek uhi. Aziak a om,


1. A.W. Davis in a genna ah, “...As stated above, the word Lushai is not used by the term that include all inhabitants of the North Lushai Hills, except Pois, is Mezo or Mizau...Pois...who are not included in the term “Mizau”(Gazetter of the North Luhsai Hills, pp 5,6). Tua mah bang in James Herbert Lorrain in a laibu Dictionary of the Lushai Language(1940) ah Mizo leh Lusei, Lusei pau pen Mizo pau ahi ciin gen hi.

2. Mizo scholar leh laigelhtute’n Lusei leh Mizo a kibang in a zang ua, pau dang leh beh dangte Mizo a hisak khol kei uhi.(Etsakna, History of Mizo in Burma).

3. Mizo pen grammatical construction a dik zou lou ahi a, Mizote mah laibu gelh Mizo Pi Pute leh An Thlate Chanchin(1964) pek 17 na (Pu. K. Zawla’ gelh) ah Zomi kilehbulh Mizo ahi...a tuung in Zomi himasa dan in gen hi.Pu K.Zawla in agelhna ah,”...Ni khat chu pa pakhat hiam sanghal muhil lai mau feiin a vit hlum a,’Keimah Mizo pa,phulraw chawia satin kappa’ tiin hla a phuah a,”Zomi’ tih aiin “Mizo’ tih hi a lo chhuak ta niin upa ten an ring”ciin gen hi.

4. Mizoram pualam ah deihbang in a lohcing kei hi. Lushai gam a te’n Kuki leh Lushai a deih louh bang un Manipur a omte’n zong Kuki a kideih louh ziak in 1942 kum June 26 in resolution khat ana bawl ua, huai ah,

1. The first decision of the meeting was that the conflicts between the tribes named Shaw under the nomenclature Kuki are unwanted,
2. The second decision was that the Thadou tribe should not make any attempt to dominate on others because of their privileged position as chiefs and also should not force others to identify themselves as Kuki;
3. Thirdly, when any person of any village joined the Army and contributed any amount to the War fund, he was to be asked to specify his ethnic group instead of the term Kuki”(B. B. Goswami: The Mizo Unrest-Study of Politicisation of Culture 1979, p. 86).

1955 kum akipan mahni tribe min a recognition bawl theih a hong hih ciang in kuamah in Kuki deih nawn lou in amau nam ciat in hong kigelhluutta uhi. Hiai toh kisai PNC tungtang neu kha i gen diing hi. Saipimual(Tangnuam?) khua a PNC phuhkhiak diing thu a genkhawm tuung un i minam min diing in Zoumi diing maw? Paite? cih thu genkhawmna ahon nei uhi.Hun sawt khop genkhawmna aneih zoh nung ua vote a honkhiak ualeh Paite in lian huapzaw hi a atheihna ziak un Zoumi sang in Paite deihte’n vote khat in zou uhi. 1951 kum M.P. election candidate dia PNC in Pu Thangkhai a nominate leh Returning Officer, M.N. Phukan in, “The candidate(i.e. Thangkhai) says that a Paite is neither a Kuki nor a Naga nor a Lushai. The seat is reserved for the Scheduled Tribes which mean any Kuki tribe, any Lushai tribe or any Naga tribe. The nomination is rejected” ci a candidature a reject ciang un election ah hon tuh theita kei ua, huciin PNC in 1955 kum November 18 ni in Honourable Minister, Home Affairs, Gov’t of India kiang ah Paite tribe recognition diing deihna in memorandum khat a peluut ua, huai ah “... Facts are facts and there is no other way. That there is such a tribe as the Paites is that the Paites are a distinct from either the Kuki tribe, the Naga tribe or the Lushei tribe, is a universally known and proved, as clearly shown in the writing of several authors on linguistic surveys and Hill tribes”aci uh hi. Tua ciin 1956 kum in Government of India theihpihna akimuta hi. PNC mah bang in nam tuamtuamte’n zong a hih ciat uhi.

Tuin Paite hiam Simte hiam Thadou hiam Hmar hiam Lusei hiam in kipumkhatna a om theivual a hi kei a,tua tham lou in Kuki hiam Chin hiam Lushai [or Mizo] hiam in leng i kipumkhat thei kei dia, Kuki leh Chin leh Mizo min teng gawmkhawm Chikim hiam ahihkeileh Chi-Ku-Mi in leng i kipumkhat thei tuan kei diing. Midang-namdangte in hon piak ma ua i pu leh pate kicihna min ban ah la leh lapau a i zat Zoumi mah in kipumkhatna leh common identity i nei thei phet diing uhi. There are simultaneous efforts by them(tribals) to find an identity and by others to integrate them but none of the two is possible... neither identity nor integration without situating the people in history”.

COMMENT (1) PHA TA..  
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#1#1 akukengsailo » 2013-02-18 17:50

"Zoumi/Zougam", "Zomi/Zogam" ... bang teng hileh kon sim suk suk aw :D

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