Feudal Society ah i ding lel

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thathang hangshingKhangthu I nei a, khangthu I sim chiat. Khangthu neilou khovel ah nam a omkei diing. Khovel in khangthu a nei a, nam chih gamchih inle khangthu anei chiat. Hiai in thupina abawl. Khangthu in hun chithum in a khen. Huaite ahihleh, (i) Ancient Age (Malai/Tanglai Hun), (ii) Medieval Age (Hun Lailak/Hun Lakloh), (iii) Modern Age (Khangthak Hun). Khovel khangthu hi’n nam /gam khangthu hileh hiai hun chithumte in a kikhen chiat sim. A tun hun (period) uhleh a poimoh dan uh a tuamchiat a, thil tungte le a hun dungzui in a kibang vekkei uhi. Hiai Hun thumte loule gentheih a omlai a, Pre-History leh Contemporary History ahi. Pre-History ahihleh Khangthu (history) omma lam genna ahi a, Ancient Age hun kipatma a hun na om genna deuh ahi hi. Contemporary History bel tulel/tulai khangthu ichi hiam, I hinsung hun mahmah genna ahi.  Tu in Hun thum igente paikheng in Contemporary Age ah Khovel  I diing lel ichi diing hi.

Gam khangthu tamzaw hi’n khovel khangthu hitaleh, hiai hun thumte paikheng khinvek chiatta in a kithei. Europe bang Modern Age a alutna AD 1453 lam ahita, America leeng hiai hun a a lutna hun sawtpi ahita, Asia le akhanghat mahmah. India bangleeng 1764 lam a lut ahita. Khawl (industry) lam thahatna a nnasepna nangawn AD 1761 apan thuiltung ahi ta a, tu hun Computer leh neuclear thahatna zang a nnasep hun ahikhinta. Hiai ahihleh, Khovel in modern age I paikheng khinta a, computer age ah I dinglel chihna ahi. Modern age beikuan lampen scientific age chiin khovel tuh science lam ah a khanghat mahmah a, scientific invention tampi mahmah hiai hun in a piangkhia hi. Tu I contemporary hun bel hiai hineng nawnlou in the age of space ahita hi. Tunung chiang in Huihkhua a va khosa leeng tampi a omta diing.

Huchi ahihlai in, ei bang hun ah I ding a, chih kidottuak tak ahi. Modern Age ah I ding hia, ahihkeh Computer age mah ah? Medieval Age a dinglai ihi hia leh? Hiai Hun thumte a tun hun uh a kibang kei I chihkhit mah bang in Medieval Age leeng a gam leh a mi atuam zil in a tun hun a kibangkei lai. Modern Age bangle huchimah bang in a baanpha omkhintham mahleh a baanpha nailou hunkhop a omlai. Khovel khangthu ah Medieval age tuh hun sawtpi a tungkim khin ahita a, Modern Age le paikheng khin abang sim. Himahleh nam tampite adi’n Medieval age a tungkim khin naikei diing, gam tuamtuam ah a omlai maithei, modern age leeng a lut hun uh akibangkei diing. Huchimah bang in eilak ahleeng medieval age tungkim khin I chithei tuankei diing. A tunkhit louhna ziak ahihkeh I paikheng khitlouhna ziak le a tuamtuam a om maithei.

Europe ah Medieval Age hun in paidan chikhat feudalism kichi ana om a, huai hun tuh feudal age leeng akichi. Hiai feudal system nuai ah khotaang hinkhua class thum in a kikhen hi—(i) Priest (ii) nobility leh (iii) peasants ahi uh. A class sangpen ah Saptuam (Church) leh Siampute a om ua, mun leh gam piak ahi ua, hiai munte ah siah (tax) Kumpi apan laak ahikei uh. Gam lian pipi nei a agam tung a vaihawm hawnkhat a omnawn ua, huaite tuh noble class ahi ua, landlord a kichi uhi. Amau te’n khotaang ah dinmun sangpi mahmah a luah ua, a class nihna ahi uh. Amau toupa ahih mah bang un, agam sung uah loukhou mite apan siah akai ua, huai loukhou mite tuh peasants chih ahi ua, serfs kichi pawl leeng a om uhi. Hiai mite’n a class thumna aluah uh. Amaute tuh gal a om chiangin galdou sepaih dia zat ahingal zel uh. Gam lian pipi nei, gou manpha pipi toh hausa mahmah te a toupa ahi ua, amaute landlord nasemte ahi uh. Hichibang hun Roman Empire puksiat khit in Europe gam pumpi ah hun sawttak ana om hi. Modern Age hun hong kaai inle abei naisai kei a, Italy leh Germany ah 1871 chiang a omtou a, France ah 1789 chiang, Russia ah 1917 chiangdong ana om zenhouh hi. Hiai hunsung tuh mi hausate (wealthy class) thuneih hun sung ahi top mai. Hiai hun England leh France ah kumzabi 11 hunlai a ana kipan ahita. Gamsung Kumpi leh a mipi lou khoumite kikal ah lord leh overlord tampi mahmah thuneihna tawi in a om uh chihna ahi. Hiai landlord te’n Kumpipa sepaih a pia ua, sum-le-pai in ahuh ua, kipahman in neih-le-lam thil thawnpiak aguan uhi.

India ah leeng Saptuam leh Siampute kiang a gam thawnpiak (land grants) kumpite apan Satahavanas leh Gupta lalte hun apan in akipanta. Hiai gam piaksung ah piak a omte’n thu a kineih ua, siah a pekei uh. Hun hong sawt chiang in Sepaih makaite, vaihawm liante (administrators) kianga kipahman in gam piak ahi ua, solkal nnasem liante (public servants) kiang ah leeng khaloh taang in piakin hong om uhi. Huchiin huai mite’n noble class hon form ua, wealthy class hong suak uh. Amaute Brahmins leh Kshastriya castes apan ahi deuh uh. Mughal te hun chiang in Zamindari system hong hat mahmah a, gam lian pipi uk mi neinung leh hausate zamindar hong kichi uhi. Hiai zamindar-te nuai ah lou nasem mi aza a sim om ua, amaute’n siah apia uhi. British te hun tan in a omsuk pek ua, jagirdar chih bang oudth (Upper UP) lakveel ah hong piangkhia hi. Agam nei mi ahihman un loukhoumi (farmer) te tung ah thu anei lian mahmah uh. Gam awng teng zamindar class te akihawm uh chilengh ikhial keidiing.

Himahleh hiai zamindar-te khota ah ateengkei ua, khopi ah nuamtakin a om zaw uh. Amun a va om peihlou ahihman un, amun enkai diing in agent aguai sawn ua, huai paidan (system) tuh sub-infeudation ichi hiam sub-feudalism ichi hi. Amun a loukhou mite haksatna atheihpihkei ua, buh leh haichi piantamna diing, agam leihoihna diing chihte le a ngaihsak baankei uh. A agent zatte un loukhoumite a ut leh dah un a bawl genthei zawmah lai ua, lou nasem leh Solkal te kikal ah thunei tampi a om. Solkal thunei lianpen in a om a, anuai ah zamindar te lal in a om ua, amaute taang a gam enkai diing lord tamtak a omsawn uh. Hiai kawmkaal ah a gam solkal in lou nasem mite haksatna a theihpih baankei, banghiam thubuai-labuai om lehleeng zamindar-te mah a gum zaw. Thubuai-labuai khentu diing hiai landlord (zamindar) temah amau gamsung chiat ah thuneihna administrative power ban ah judicial power piak ahi zawmah uh.

Khokheng hiam, tuichiim hiam, kial hiam ziak a buh pianlouh kum inle siah hiai cultivator te apan laak ahithou. A pezouloute le phutluih ahi uh. Siah piakna di’n sumpung a leitawi mai uh angai. Khamkhop angahna di un, a loubawlna uh kumteng a apuahphat touhtouh uh poimoh nawn. Lei hoihna kiam hiaihiai, mihing tam hiaihiai, gam kidaihlah hiaihiai, inkuan khat in gam lianlou tangzou lel hong hita. Huchi dinmun ah, tuzat-heizat hoihzaw leina diing, haichi hoihzaw leina diing, leihoihna (fertilizer) leina diing, tuilam (canal) bawlna diing leh insung a moulopna or moukhakna bang hong omchia’n huai dikhawng in sumpung percent tam pipi hilehle a leitawi mai uh a poimoh. A kumtawp nasep gah uh hon zuak chiang un lah mahajon te’n tawm chikchik a laksak in amau apung tamzaw toh national leh international market a zuak theizel uh. Hiai mahajon-te kiangmah a sumpung alaak ut utoh a chih zahzah ua a louhaite uh azuak sukmai uhi. Huchia marchant class leh money lender class bang khotaang (society) ah hong piang. A sum laak uh a pung toh kum tawpchia tampi mahmah hong pha, buh hong hoihlouh lai chia chihtaak diing lakhelou, a sumbat uh din zoulou, huaichia aneih leh lam tengteng uh, akhen chia azi leh tate natan uh suhsak a loukhoumite hong om. Akhente bang pekhin a kichih chiang ua le a piak nailouh bang ua batbu a kigelh lai, amaute lah mimawl leh lai theilou ahihman un moneylender te chih dandan a pomsiam mai uh ngai, huchi hikeileh sumbat din utloupa chia police matsak di hizaw mahlai ahi uh.

I tulel dinmun uah leeng, I khotaang ah hiaibang hun hong tung dekpan a de aw ka chihton a om. Feudalism hun ah I ding pan lellel uh hin ka kithei. European leh Indian feudalism toh I kibatna chiang uh tampi om hileh akilawm. Aziak ahihleh gensiam kholkei mahleng bangzah hiam igen suk diing. Medieval age hun a I Zomi society ding lellai ahihdan leh feudalism hun toh kibang a khosalai ihihdan aziak bangzah hiamte ahihleh—
Khatna ah, I society uah a neinung leh hausa (wealthy) mi tamloute kia ahi. Amaute khut ah I Zogam leitang teng a om khinphial ta. Sum neite mah in luakkhin diing hong bang. Singtang gam hausa khenkhatte apan mun leh mual amau khut ah a lut khinta, bangzah hiam a lut lellel a, a lut zel laidiing. Amaute mah in thuneihna hon tawi diing uhi.

Gam ichih a poimoh mahmah, tang a tuan apan tuni dong a pioimoh leh a poimohna mang theilou ahi. Tuni leh denchiang in a poimohna hong lian semsem lai diing. Gam ziakin mihingte kibuai a kidou ihi gige uh. Gam ziakin kho thupite puk in a khente a kitung ding. Gam etlahna leeng a lianseem. A pil te’n a poimohna a mukhol semsem zawmah lai uhi. Ahai te’n bel a zuak beibei uh. I maban diing gam leh leitang ah a kinga lian mahmah. Gam neiloute minuai a sem leh kuun diing chihna ahipah ngal.

Nihna ah, mi hausa tamlou chikte’n sum pung a hawm ua, percent tam pipi ala uh. Hiai a surety/security diing in service book, pension book, inmun patta, gam patta chihte ala ua, mi vaantaang neihsunte amau khut ah a om teltul. Atat zohkei uleh a gou leh gam uh a tangden thei uh chihna ahi mai. Mihausa tampite society a kibawl ua, society min in sumpung a pekhe zel uh. Mi hausa bangzah hiam pangkhawm in hichibang society ah a pung delh in sum a huikhawm uh. A haute a hausem sem diing ua, a zawngte neih nangawng laksuh a hong hitou tou diing chih thudik ahi.

Thumna ah, sumpung mawk muh diing ahikei zawmah, hiai sumpung hawmte’n agent a nei ua, ahihkeh agent a kipei mi hunkhop a om ua ichizaw hiam, hiai agent te’n a zonsak man uh commission tam pipi ala zel uh. Agent-te tungtawn lou a sumpung muh diing leeng ahi nawn mangkei. Agent-te through a zawn angai simta a, agent te’n amuh man uh 10% bang a sumpi apan ane zel uhi. Sum petu leh sum bapa kikaal ah agent li leh nga bang a omzel chih ahi. Agent te’n commission alaak chiang un, a sum petu mahajon pa leeng commission nelak ah a telpha, commission a tangbaan chihna ahi. Chiangzaw seem in gen leeng, sum basaktu mahleeng agent ahikop tel hi! Feudalism ahihkeh zamindari system a tunga i gen bang in akaal ah agent tampi a omsawn a, I Zogam ah mi zawngte lak ah sum a kimawlna asang mahmah ta. Akhente adi’n bel nagum semlou a nek muhna asuak veve.  
Alina ah, jamabandi system in neitu hihna a hihkip a, Solkal in pattadar a piak chiang in a neitu hihna uh a recognized chihna ahi a, kuamah khin (challenge) theihlouh asuak uh. Nidanglai i pu I pate uapan I tawndan uh community system toh kikalh geih in Manipur Government in Manipur Land Revenue & Land Record Act (MLR & LR) Act hon zatkhum ua, Lamka leh a sehveel tengteng jamabandi/patta system in hon huamsak uhi. Huaiziak in mimal khut ah hiai jamabandi tungtawn in gam lutlut a, khotang hiam hausa hiam in gam aneihkop diing hong bei hiaihiai hi. Huai ahihman in khotaang vaihawmna leeng mi tamlou chikte vaihawmna hong suakpahta diing.

Ngana ah, computer age a khovel adin hang in ei i ding chihna hituanlou hi. Computer technology, western fashion, western music, arts, science chihte eilak hong lut hang in, ei aa ahikei a, midangte a I chiin uh ahizaw. Min modern age a paikheng hang un ei modern age ah I lutkhin chihna leeng omtuan lou hi. Midang hunbi va kikoppih i hizaw uhi. Ataktak in, eilawi modern age ah I lut naikei hi, medieval age ah I dinglai ua, huai leeng feudal age lut dekpan ihi zawmah. Bangziakin? Modern age a ilut theihna di’n eimah tualsuak bangmah a om nailouh banah, midangte bawl zang leh midangte tawndan kikoppih ihihzawk lel ziakin. Khawl thilbawl, mihing khutsuak, damdawi, vanzat, kicheina leh a tuamtuam ei ikibawl a omkei. Literature revival, renaissance, reformation, humanism, scientific invention, industry, scientific knowledge, advancement in sculpture, painting, engeneering chihte eilak ah apiang naikei. Saptuam ah kikhenna a om naikei, khotaang ah kikhenna a om bokkei, politics ah kikhenna I mutuankei, new thought and ideas a om bokkei, cultural progress le I nei tuankei, a mangsak kuan ihizaw mah, mass economic development le ithei khakei. Banglam mah ah Revolution himhim I tawn kha naikei.

Gukna ah, feudal society bang in I society uah class a kikhenna a hong om pan lellel. Mi tamlou te’n gam lian pipi anei uh. Mi hausate lak ah niteng tektawm diing leh sep diing, bawl diing iva zong, amaute lakah kilohna diing iva mu. Huchiin pu I hon nei a, amaute i toupa hong hi ua, eite anuai a nasemte ihita uh. Hiai class sytem chi hiam category a kikhenna feudal age nuai ah ahat mahmah bang in eilak ahleeng hong hat deuhdeuh diing. A haute khotaang a tallang hong hipah ua, a tallang temah pauzou hong suak ua, mi narante tuh pau zoulou hong hihthoh pian simta hi.

Sagihna ah, medieval age hun lai in Saptuam ahat mahmah a, Roman Catholic in thuneihna (power & authority) lianpi atawi. Mimal gen tuh dikzaw lehle Saptuam gindan toh a kikalh leh Pathian dem bangkhop a ngaih ahi a, ginglou leh Saptuam kalh chiin danpua ah a hawlpawt geihgeih uhi. Huchimah bang in tulai in I khotaang ah Saptuam lian tuambik khat leh nih a thulut mahmah a, saptuam neu dangte tuh thulaak taak inle a kikoihkei. Peace Mission hi in free & fair election toh kisai a Consultative meeting hiam committee hiam om lehle Saptuam theihtham louhte tuh dotkhak leh huamtel khak inle a omkei ua, saptuam lian khat leh nih in a select ahi zawsim pahngal. Roman Catholic in Solkal ana thuzoh mahmah bangin tulai inle Saptuam pawl liante’n solkal (District Administration) a thuzoh mahmah uh. Toupa ichih English laimal Lord apan hong kila ahi a, Lord tuh Landlord apan hong piangkhia ahi. Hiaimai inle medieval/feudal age hunlai in Saptuam thuneihna (influence) a genlang pahngal. Huai hunlai a Saptuam Roman Catholic Church in sahkho lam ah Christianity a zuihmah bangin Emperor Constantine (AD 306-337) hun apan in Rome government a zuisak a, Emperor Theodosius I (AD 379-395) hun apan in a gam sahkhua (state religion) leh Roman Empire a sahkhua pom a omsun hong hizui ngal. Hiai in huai hunlai a gam kivaihawmna (politics & administration) nna leh sahkho (religion) nna a kikawimat chihkia phetlou in Catholic Church in Solkal a thuneihkhum zohdan hon ensak hi. Tulai inle Saptuam dan toh kikalh peuhmah Pathian dan kalhna banga ngai in kigu kitaipihte bang Saptuam in danpua ah akoih geihgeih hi.

Giatna ah, European feudalism hunlai in Kumpi (kings) om mahleh a thunei zou taktak kei ua, feudal lord te amau khomkhom in a lal zawsim uh. Huchimah bangin ei society ahleeng, hausa (chief) om mahleh a lal zou taktak kei ua, amau sangin mi neite mah a thupi zaw sim uh. Feudal society ah Lalgam (kingdom) khat tuh a min in Kumpi gam leh a thuneihna ahi a, a taktak in gam lord te a kihawmbei vek uh. Eilak ahleeng Hausa gam leh vaihawmna a thu in himahleh ataktak in mimal gam ngenta ahisimta.

Kuana ah, Feudal age hunlai in group activities leh group control lampang khotaang ah a hatzaw a, individual interest leh personal freedom a tawm mahmah. Mipite’n utut gentheihna (freedom of self-expression) zaleenna himhim a neikei uh ahimai. Tulai inleeng ei khotaang vai ah huchibang zaleenna inei chiahkei a, huailai toh dinmun kibang in I om. Pawlpi kuate hiam thu-le-la leh a nasep thilhih utoh kisai dik in dikkei leh genkhak diing tuh zeh bang in I ngai ua, I kiveng sim chiat uh. Genkhelh sakkhelh khak diing michih a lauthong ngenta ihi uh. Amau kalh zawng a thuzekte tuah zelzel khawngte itheichiat.

Sawmna ah, conflict and confrontation of culture and language hun ah I ding lellel. Hiai hun pen Europe, America leh Asia gambup te’n a paikheng khitsa uh ana hita. Etsakna’n- America ah Spaniard, Portuguese, French leh English te kumzabi 16 lai in ava lut ua, ana omsa Incas (Peru), Cortes, Aztecs (Cuba & Maxico), Arawaks (Caribbean & Brazil) leh Mayas namte civilization va susia in amau Europe vaihawmna leh tawndante ava polut uhi. Amun a na omsa agam mite tuhun in nam mang ahimai uh. USA ah Red India te sukmang in a om uhi. Huchimah bangin tulai inleeng I society ah cultural invasion Mizo te apan bang, Korea te apan bang, Japan te apan bang, Hindi te apan bang, Meitei te apan bang, Sapte apan bang hong lut hi gige. Bangchidan in? A film, serial, music, fashion, style leh la (songs) te apan ua hon thuneihkhum ahi gige uh. A hon thuzoh mahmah chiang un, khangthakte hon nawmvalh dia, ei a bangmah a ngaihlouhna hong piang in, i taisan diing ua, huchiin nam mang I himai diing. Hiai process ah I ding lellel. Tripuri te, Khasi, Garo, Assamese, chihte le ahibaan vek. Meitei te’n hiai alauhman un hun sawtpek apan Hindi film himhim bandh abawlta uhi. Denchiangin Korea film lam le hon bandh beh khamohkei diing uh. Impact of the Korean films upon the youths in the present society chihkhawng Meitei scholar te’n research a bawl zohsa uh ahita. Eilak ah huchibang study le a om bokkei a, I theihlouh kaal in nawmvalh akihi khin naak.

Tua I Zomi society pailel ah, Lushai pau hia, Thadou (Kuki) pau hia, Tedim-Chin pau hia, Paite Manipur pau hia I zatdiing uh chihte aguk a kitauhtuah (secret confrontation) ahi gige phial. En I buaipih leh genkhak hihetlou napi in, khang in hon paipih dan ahi leltak. Buaipih din koihbaan kei mahleng, denchiang in a langtang in hong langkhe thouthou diing. Huaichiang in tawndan khat leh paukhat a hong tualleeng diing a, adangte tuh nelhsiah a hong hi maimah diing. Etsakna di’n- Tedim pau bang amah leh amah in hong tualleng pen leh, Paite pau mi mah in ama pau sang in Tedim pau a pibawl zaw diing, Thadou pan le a zang zaw diing chihna ahi. Tu in le I laigelh leh thugen ah Tedim pau in I hoi simchiat. A khenten Lushai pau mah achi sim uh. Christian hong lut tunglai a Lusei pau a la kisa leh Bible kisim ahihna ah, nuam sazaw tampi a omlai tham diing. Zofest ichih te’n le Mizoram naihna promote pek ahi zaw. I Zo nam sungmah ahle kigawmna dia pau paipi khat neih hoih ahi, huai tuh Mizo pau hileh ahoih diing chih bang heutu muan phamta Khup Za Gou leh J. Thanglianpau, Aizawl chihte’n hoih asakdan uh ahi. Thadou Kukite a pil uleh amau toh kitengmat pen ahihna ah ahon neh baih mahmah diing uh. Himahleh atangpi in State neisa leh a lomteen zawdeuh te’n mi aneh baih uh abang. Hiaichu khang hong tung diing a I maban uh ahi. Hiai hitaleh medieval age paikheng ikichi thei diam?

Sawmle Khatna, feudalism hunlai mah in khopi hong khang in growth of towns kichi hong piang a, michih in khopi nekzawnna di leh khosakna di’n hon bel uhi. Huchimah bangin I tulel dinmun ah, Lamka khua I kidelhhuan a, khopi hong suak. A kiim a singtang khuate apan mi paikhawmte’n khopi a behlap lap ua, Lamka tuh a khanghat mahmah a, a khang lellel lai. Nek-le-taak zonna di bang, tate siamsinna di bang, sumsinna di bang leh khosakna di himhim a etlahna ziakte bangin Lamka ah I tengkhawm uhi. Huchibang thou ahi Mediaval Age hunlai a khopi hong khandan. Tu in hiai hun ah I pai lellel. Huaiziak in Hun Lakloh a dinglai ihi ichilou theikei. Huaibel, khanglah khangkhe taktak nailou, nidanglai tanglai hun a dinglah hi nawnlou, huai hun lah paipel khin hisimta, modern age lah tungpha taktak nailou in, a khang lellel in I om uhi.

Sawmle Nihna, loubawlna lam ah technology kikheng bangmah I neikei ua, singtang lou mah I bawl ua, nidang apan ina zatsa tuzat heizat mah I zangden lai uh. Machine zang a lou nasep a om tuankei, tamlou chikte’n tuilou I bawllel uh. Plantation farming le I hihpha naikei, water-powered mill leh wind mill chihte le I zangbaan kei, huaiziakin 11th Century Europe le pha nailou ihi zawmah. Huai hunlai in Europe gam pumpi phial ah tua I gente na zangta uhi. Arigulture technology lam ah kikhenna a om a, huai hunlai in Europe ah agriculture revolution ana tungkhin daihta. Three Fold System bang haichi chiinna lam ah ana zangta ua, eite’n bel huai paidan le I neithei naikei. Kumkhat in buh khatvei kia ila denlai. Hiaite’n khosakna leh nek-taak zonna lam a iniam dan uh hon theichiansak semsem.

Huchibang leh khachibang ihihna ah, feudal age ah I dinglai ichilou theikei. Aziak tua igente louleeng gentheih tampi a omlai tham diing. Himahleh tua igen thupi deuh teng inle I gennop leh I thupi hon langchian sak zou nalou diing hia? Medieval Age leh feudal society tuh paikheng zou nailou deuhmah ihi ve, a kibatna main familiar features or characteristics tampi mahmah om hiven!